Category: 2014

Genetic-Based Abundance Estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Salmon

This project, begun in 2012 by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife under the Sentinel Stocks Program to estimate the abundance of Chinook salmon spawners and effective breeders in the Snohomish River, continues today in partnership with the Tulalip Tribes of Washington using trans-generational genetic mark recapture (tGMR) and trans-generational rarefaction curve analysis (tRC). Additional objectives are to partition the genetic-based abundance estimate for natural spawning Chinook by origin, sex, and age, and assuming adequate data are acquired, and to develop a redd expansion calibration factor to adjust historical (or future) redd-based escapement estimates.
Funding is requested to collect and genotype subyearling offspring of the previous brood year, and to collect carcass samples from spawners in the fall. The Snohomish River basin is comprised of two Chinook salmon populations: the Skykomish River summer Chinook population (which includes Skykomish, mainstem Snohomish, and Pilchuck River) and the Snoqualmie River fall Chinook population. We expect to deliver tGMR and tRC abundance estimates for both populations for each brood year that is successfully sampled.

S18-VHP14B Skykomish River Juvenile Salmon Out-Migration Study 2018

S17-VHP21B Skykomish River juvenile salmon out-migration study

VHP16-02A Genetic-based abundance estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Report 2016

VHP15-05A Progress - Genetic-Based Abundance Estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Salmon (WDFW Component)

VHP15-05B Progress - Genetic-Based Abundance Estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Salmon (Tulalip Component)

SSP14-08 Progress - Genetic-Based Abundance Estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Salmon. Year 4

SSP13-10 Progress - Genetic-Based Abundance Estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Salmon. Year 3

SSP12-16 Progress - Genetic-Based Abundance Estimates for Snohomish River Chinook Salmon

Abundance Estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook Salmon Using Trans-generational Genetic Mark Recapture

The primary objective of this trans-generational genetic mark-recapture (tGMR) project is to: 1) estimate the abundance of Chinook salmon spawners and effective breeders in the Stillaguamish River above the smolt trap site using genetic abundance methods. The secondary objectives of this study are to: 2) estimate the natural spawning Chinook salmon abundance by origin (hatchery or natural), sex and age, and 3) estimate a redd expansion calibration factor from historic redd-based escapement estimates and possible future redd counts. The data collected for this project also provide a genetic baseline for these population estimates, a genetic (parentage-based) estimate of the proportion of hatchery-origin spawners, and an estimate of relative reproductive success of hatchery spawners, because carcasses are classified by origin. Genetic sampling will be conducted during the fall spawning period, and smolt trapping will be conducted during the following spring.

S19-I08 Abundance estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook salmon using trans-generational genetic mark recapture 2019 Report

S18-VHP12 Abundance estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook salmon using trans-generational genetic mark recapture

S17-VHP17 2016 Broodyear Report Abundance estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook salmon using trans-generational genetic mark recapture

VHP16-01: Abundance estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook salmon using trans-generational genetic mark recapture 2015-2016

VHP15-06 Abundance Estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook Salmon Using Trans-generational Genetic Mark Recapture. Year 1

SSP14-05 Abundance Estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook Salmon. Year 5

SSP13-11 Abundance Estimates for Stillaguamish River Chinook Salmon. Year 4

 

 

Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, Alaska

The overarching goal of this joint project by the University of Alaska and the Alaska Department of Fish & Game is to use parentage-based tagging over three generations of experimental hatchery supplementation to quantify differences in fitness between wild and hatchery-origin sockeye salmon in Auke Creek, Alaska. Secondary goals of this research are to test for second-generation differences in fitness between wild and hatchery-origin individuals that spawn naturally, and to quantify changes in genetic diversity and population structure in the wild sockeye salmon population as a result of three generations of hatchery supplementation. Results of this study will provide information critical for assessing the relative costs and benefits of hatchery supplementation in managing sockeye salmon populations subject to the Pacific Salmon Treaty.

N19-I11B Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK 2019 Report

N18-I08B Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK Report 2018

N17-I10A Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK Report 2018

N16-I15A Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye in Auke Creek, AK June 2014-June 2017

N15-I22A Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK. (UAF Component) Year 2 of 3

N15-I22B Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK. (ADFG Component) Year 2 of 3

N14-I34A Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK. (UAF Component) Year 1

N14-I34B Assessing Effects of Supplementation on Fitness of Sockeye Salmon in Auke Creek, AK. (ADFG Component) Year 1

 

 

Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification

Provisions of the Pacific Salmon Treaty specify harvest sharing arrangements of Nass and Skeena River sockeye salmon returns for the U.S. and Canada. The United States is allowed to harvest a fixed percentage of the Annual Allowable Harvest of Nass and Skeena sockeye stocks in Alaska’s District 101 gillnet and District 104 purse seine fisheries. Accurate estimates of the stock-specific catch in commercial fisheries of each nation are required to estimate the total return of these stocks and the percentage of each stock caught in treaty-limited fisheries. Annual catches over or under the agreed percentage are made up for in subsequent years.

Until recently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) used scale pattern analysis successfully to estimate contributions of Nass, Skeena and Southeast Alaska sockeye stocks to fisheries in southern Southeast Alaska. SinceĀ  2006, the Auke Bay Laboratories has used genetic analysis for the Northern Boundary sockeye fisheries. Results from comparisons between stock composition using scales and genetic analysis show both methods provide accurate estimates of stock composition, although DNA analysis is able to discriminate stocks at a finer resolution than scales. An additional advantage of the DNA technique is that it does not require annual sampling to re-establish the escapement baseline.

The purpose of this project is to continue the genetic stock identification of the commercial sockeye catch in ADF&G District 101 gillnet fishery and District 104 seine fishery using the baselines developed by the ADF&G.

N18-I10 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Genetic Stock Identification Report 2018

N17-I09 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Genetic Stock Identification Report 2017

N16-I02 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Genetic Stock Identification Report 2016

N15-I02 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification for 2015. Year 9 of 17

N14-I02 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification for 2014. Year 8

N13-I02 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification for 2013. Year 7

N12-I07 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Stock Identification for 2012. Year 6

N11-I04 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Genetic Stock Identification. Year 5

N10-I11 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification. Year 3

N08-I30 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Genetic Stock Identification. Year 3

N07-I19 Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Genetic Stock Identification. Year 2.

N06-I12A Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification

N06-I12B Northern Boundary Area Sockeye Salmon Genetic Stock Identification (ADFG)

Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling

Provisions of the 1999 Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST) specify abundance-based harvest sharing arrangements of Nass and Skeena River sockeye salmon returns for the U.S. and Canada. The United States is allowed to harvest a fixed percentage of the annual allowable harvest of Nass and Skeena sockeye stocks in Alaska’s District 101 gillnet and District 104 purse seine fisheries. Accurate estimates of the stock-specific catch in commercial fisheries of each nation are required to estimate the total return of these stocks and the percentage of each stock caught in treaty-limited fisheries.
Since 1982, scale pattern analysis (SPA), sometimes in conjunction with other biological markers, has been used to survey the weekly catch of Northern Boundary and Transboundary sockeye salmon stocks in Southeast Alaska fisheries. However, problems in accurately estimating stock-specific catches and total returns of sockeye salmon in the early years of the Pacific Salmon Treaty resulted in an extensive investigation, and it was concluded that improved stock identification techniques, such as genetic stock analysis, were needed to accurately evaluate effectiveness and improve, if possible, existing run reconstruction methods. Two blind tests of scale analysis vs. genetic analysis demonstrated that, while both techniques were accurate, the genetic analysis had higher precision and could also often identify many specific stocks, while scale analysis is limited to identifying a few stock-groups. Neither technique can identify enhanced fish where the brood stock came from wild stocks that are also present in the mixed stock fisheries; thus, otoliths are used in annual stock composition estimates and run reconstructions.
ADF&G proposes to continue collecting weekly otolith, tissue, and scale samples of sockeye from the Southeast Alaska commercial harvest in the District 101 gillnet and District 104 purse seine fisheries, among other districts and fisheries for projects that complement this program. Stock identification analysis using age composition, thermal mark presence, and new, more stock-discrete DNA techniques will be conducted at NOAA’s Auke Bay Laboratory. This project also complements the continuing work by DFO in Areas 3, 4 and 5.

N18-I06 Northern & Transboundary Sockeye Salmon Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling Report

N17-I07 Northern & Transboundary Sockeye Salmon Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling Report

N16-I05 Northern & Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 9

N15-I08 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 8

N14-I07 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 7

N13-I07 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 6

N12-I05 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 5

N11-I13 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 4

N10-I10 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 3

N08-I12 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling. Year 2

N07-I25 Northern and Transboundary Sockeye Salmon Matched Scale-Tissue Sampling

 

Transboundary Sockeye Thermal Mark Recovery (ADFG Mark, Tag & Age Lab Support)

The Thermal Mark Laboratory at the ADF&G Mark, Tag and Age (MTA) Laboratory is responsible for examining sockeye salmon otoliths recovered from commercial fisheries in southeast Alaska for thermal marks indicating hatchery origin, and for making the associated data available to biologists for management of sockeye from the transboundary Taku and Stikine Rivers.

N18-I02 Alaska Department of Fish & Game Mark, Tag, and Age Laboratory Support Report

N17-I03 Alaska Department of Fish & Game Mark, Tag, and Age Laboratory Support Report

N16-I16 Alaska Department of Fish & Game Mark, Tag, and Age Laboratory Support Report 2015-2016

N15-I23 Alaska Department of Fish & Game Mark, Tag and Age Laboratory Support. Year 2 of 3

N14-I37 Alaska Department of Fish & Game Mark, Tag and Age Laboratory Support. Year 1

 

 

Northern Boundary Area Summer Chum Salmon Monitoring

The purpose of this project is to improve assessment of summer chum salmon escapements in the northern boundary area of southern Southeast Alaska. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game currently maintains an escapement index of 13 summer-run chum salmon streams in the Boundary Area that are assessed primarily through aerial survey methods. Two additional index streams were identified during the first two years of this project, including one that was suitable for conducting long-term foot and aerial surveys. These streams were added to the Southern Southeast Subregion summer chum salmon escapement index during the Alaska Board of Fisheries meeting in February 2015. ADF&G Commercial Fisheries managers have expressed concern regarding their ability to obtain reliable counts of chum salmon in some of the large mainland rivers where chum salmon may be masked by high densities of pink salmon, particularly in years of low chum salmon abundance. The primary objective of this project is to conduct helicopter surveys of summer chum salmon on currently monitored, large mainland river systems south of Wrangell and one new index stream on Prince of Wales Island. Helicopter surveys will provide surveyors improved views of these streams, validate observations of chum and pink salmon abundance, identify primary chum salmon spawning areas, and improve managers’ ability to identify chum salmon during routine aerial surveys of other index streams in the area. Additional foot and aerial surveys conducted concurrently on three smaller chum salmon index systems will similarly allow for direct comparison to aerial survey estimates. Results from these surveys will guide future chum salmon monitoring in the boundary area. In addition, we will opportunistically collect tissue samples from pink and chum salmon for Southeast Alaska genetic baselines as needed.

N15-I24 Northern Boundary Area Summer Chum Salmon Monitoring 2015

N14-I39 Northern Boundary Area Summer Chum Salmon Monitoring 2014

N13-I09 Northern Boundary Area Summer Chum Salmon Monitoring 2013

N12-I11 Northern Boundary Area Summer Chum Salmon Monitoring

 

South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Broodstock Implementation

Continue to develop, culture, and implement a captive adult broodstock program using juvenile Chinook recruited from the South Fork of the Nooksack River. This is accomplished by receiving up to 1,000 juvenile fish from the Skookum Creek facility, identifying them as either yearling or sub yearling and placing them in discrete vessels for rearing. Additional work includes passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging and subsequent transfer of half of the fish to the NOAA facility at Manchester for extended rearing in saltwater, while the other half remains at Kendall Creek Hatchery. During the summer months developing adults are identified for maturation and then transferred to the Skookum Hatchery for spawning. The resultant eggs and fry are then incubated, reared, and released into the South Fork of the Nooksack River in the spring of the following year.

The 12 months of staff funding is to support the increasing burden and complexity of fish culture, DNA sampling, PIT tagging, fish health monitoring, data entry, tracking and enumeration and technical reports associated with the program.

S16-E01 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Broodstock Implementation. Year 9

S15-E01 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Broodstock Implementation. Year 8 of 10

S14-E01 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Broodstock Implementation. Year 7

S13-E01 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Broodstock Implementation. Year 6

S12-E02 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Brood Implementation. Year 5

S11-E01 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Brood Implementation. Year 4

S10-E02 South Fork Nooksack Chinook Captive Broodstock Implementation. Year 3

 

 

 

Benchmarks of biological status for data-limited populations of Chum Salmon in southern BC

The Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST) Chum Annex requires biological benchmarks to inform the development of fishery reference points for PST related fisheries, including the lower fishery reference point for the Johnstone Strait fisheries as well as subsequent terminal fisheries. Biological benchmarks for data-limited populations have been proposed and are currently being applied to Conservation Units (CUs), or population units, of chum salmon in southern BC. The first phase of this project evaluated percentile-based benchmarks for data-limited CUs of chum salmon on the Inner South Coast of BC. Our preliminary results suggest that the 25th percentile lower benchmark is more precautionary than the stock-recruitment based lower benchmarks developed under Canada’s Wild Salmon Policy, except when CU productivity is low and historical harvest rates are high.
For 2016, we will expand our evaluation of percentile-based benchmarks to include the west coast of Vancouver Island and Fraser River, and expand our use of assessment models to include hierarchical multi-CU models. Finally, we will provide recommendations on the application of benchmarks to chum management units (through component CUs within management units) and chum salmon Genetic Units, as identified by a project funded by the PSC SEF on genetic stock identification, on the west coast of Vancouver Island and in the Fraser River within the context of the PST Chum Annex.

S16-I05 Adapting benchmarks of biological status for persistent changes in productivity and variability in exploitation history with a focus on data-limited populations of chum salmon in southern BC

S15-I13 Adapting benchmarks of biological status for persistent changes in productivity and variability in exploitation history with a focus on data-limited populations of Chum Salmon in southern BC.

 

Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction

Weir counts have been made on the Klukshu River, part of the Alsek River system, by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) in co-operation with the Champagne-Aishihik First Nation, since 1976. A mark-and-recapture program ran from 2000 to 2004, and in 2005 and 2006, the Alsek sockeye population was estimated using tissue sample and catch information from the commercial sockeye fishery in Dry Bay as well as the weir counts. By recommendation by the Northern Fund Committee in 2008, a statistically valid sampling strategy that would provide the foundation for reconstructing sockeye and Chinook returns to the Alsek River was completed. Based on this model, it was proposed that funding be provided to analyze sockeye tissue samples collected in the commercial sockeye fishery in Dry Bay (up to 750 per season), to reconstruct the Alsek sockeye runs as described in Gazey’s analysis.

N20-I23 Alsek River Sockeye Salmon Run Reconstruction Using GSI 2020 Report

N18-I14 Alsek River Sockeye Run Reconstruction Using GSI 2018 Report

N17-I16 Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction 2017

N16-I49 Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction Using GSI 2016

N15-I11 Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction 2015. Year 4

N14-I10 Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction 2014

N13-I12 Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction 2013

N12-I17 Alsek Sockeye Run Reconstruction, 2012